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2022-03-14 75
BGA
Ball Grid Array (BGA): Features, Soldering Technique, and X-Ray Inspection Electronic devices are shrinking in size and increasing in complexity due to improvements in VLSI technology. The need for more interfacing input/output (I/O) leads and smaller device sizes have increased and this need can be met with the BGA (Ball Grid Array) package.

Electronic devices are shrinking in size and increasing in complexity due to improvements in VLSI technology. The need for more interfacing input/output (I/O) leads and smaller device sizes have increased and this need can be met with the BGA (Ball Grid Array) package. BGA ICs having 4 pins to more than 500 IO’s are commonly available. Such BGA ICs have a smaller form factor and help decrease the size of circuits. This enables the design and manufacture of compact products.
BGA devices are used extensively in modern products such as mobiles, PCs, and various communication devices. What is a BGA? A Ball Grid Array Integrated Circuit is a surface mount device (SMD) component that possesses no leads. This SMD package employs an array of metal spheres that are made of solder called the solder balls for connections to the PCB (Printed Circuit Board). These solder balls are affixed to a laminated substrate at the bottom of the package.
Figure (1) and Figure (2) display two examples of how BGA devices are constructed. Figure (1) shows how the BGA die/chip is mounted on the substrate and connected to the substrate by wire bonding technology. Figure (2) displays how the BGA die is connected to the substrate using flip-chip technology.

The BGA die connections are routed to the solder balls using metal traces on the substrate. BGA packages can provide more IO connections compared to dual in-line or flat packages.

The connections from the die to the balls in BGA ICs are on average shorter than perimeter-only type connections such as DIP ICs. Thus, leading to better performance at high speeds. BGA PoP package PoP is an acronym for package on package. It’s a process of stacking components or ICs together. PoP allows multiple ICs to be integrated into a single package such as a logic device or memory to be packaged with a processor. This greatly reduces the requirement for PCB area and minimizes signal integrity issues on the board. Finally, it helps to improve overall board performance at an additional cost.
Advantages Reducing component size
Minimizing overall cost
Reducing board complexity


Of all the packages, the BGA is the most popular package used in high I/O devices in the industry. Features of BGA High lead count No leads to bend
High interconnection density
Occupies lesser space on the board
Low inductance
Self-centering during the reflow process which reduces placement problems during surface mount soldering
Lower thermal resistance between the package and the PCB. This allows heat generated by the integrated circuit inside the package to flow more easily to the PCB, preventing the chip from overheating
Learn how to breakout a .4mm BGA. Types of BGAs There is a wide variety of BGA device packages available in the market. Here are a few popularly used BGAs:

Plastic over-molded BGAs (PBGAs) (Ball pitch 1.0mm, 1.27mm) – are an alternative form of the standard BGA. These BGA incorporate a plastic-coated body, a glass-mixture laminated substrate, and etched copper traces. PBGAs feature improved temperature stability and preformed solder balls
High thermal metal top BGAs with low profile (HLPBGAs)
Flex Tape BGAs (TBGAs)
High thermal BGAs ( H-PBGAs)
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